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mosquito - zika virus

Zika Virus Disease: Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention and Pregnancy Risk

What is Zika Virus and it’s Origin?

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These mosquitoes bite during the day and night.

The virus was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.

Zika Virus Symptoms

Many people infected with Zika virus may not have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms.

Common symptoms of Zika virus disease are;

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Joint pain
  • Rash
  • Muscle pain
  • Conjunctivitis (red eyes)

Your doctor may order a blood or urine test to help determine if you have Zika.

Zika Virus Transmission

Zika virus is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus)

Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners.

The virus can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her fetus. This infection during pregnancy can cause certain birth defects.

According to report, the mosquitoes that can spread Zika are found throughout the United States but no local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission has been reported in the continental United States as at 2018.

Through mosquito bites

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue and chikungunya viruses.

These mosquitoes typically lay eggs in or near standing water in things like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots, and vases. They prefer to bite people, and live indoors and outdoors near people.

Mosquitoes that spread chikungunya, dengue, and Zika bite during the day and night.

A mosquito gets infected with a virus when it bites an infected person during the period of time when the virus can be found in the person’s blood, typically only through the first week of infection.

Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.

Zika virus transmission Through sex

Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her partners. Zika can be passed through sex, even if the infected person does not have symptoms at the time. Learn how to protect yourself during sex.

It can be passed from a person with Zika before their symptoms start, while they have symptoms, and after their symptoms end.

Though not well documented, the virus may also be passed by a person who carries the virus but never develops symptoms.

Studies are underway to find out how long Zika stays in the semen and vaginal fluids of people who have Zika, and how long it can be passed to sex partners. We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood.

Zika virus transmission Through blood transfusion

To date, there have not been any confirmed blood transfusion transmission cases in the United States.

There have been multiple reports of possible blood transfusion transmission cases in Brazil.
During the French Polynesian outbreak, 2.8% of blood donors tested positive for Zika and in previous outbreaks, the virus has been found in blood donors.

Through laboratory and healthcare setting exposure

There are reports of laboratory acquired Zika virus infections, although the route of transmission was not clearly established in all cases.

To date, no cases of Zika virus transmission in healthcare settings have been identified in the United States. Recommendations are available for healthcare providers to help prevent exposure to Zika virus in healthcare settings.

Zika Virus and Pregnancy

Zika can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Infection during pregnancy can cause certain birth defects.

Mother to child Zika virus transmission

A pregnant woman can pass Zika virus to her fetus during pregnancy. Zika is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. We are studying the full range of other potential health problems that Zika virus infection during pregnancy may cause.

A pregnant woman already infected with Zika virus can pass the virus to her fetus during the pregnancy or around the time of birth.

Zika virus has been found in breast milk. Possible Zika virus infections have been identified in breastfeeding babies, but Zika virus transmission through breast milk has not been confirmed. Additionally, we do not yet know the long-term effects of Zika virus on young infants infected after birth. Because current evidence suggests that the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the risk of Zika virus spreading through breast milk, CDC continues to encourage mothers to breastfeed, even if they were infected or lived in or traveled to an area with risk of Zika. CDC continues to study Zika virus and the ways it can spread and will update recommendations as new information becomes available.

Zika Virus Treatment

There is no specific medicine for Zika virus. Treat the symptoms.

  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration and get plenty of rest.
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) to reduce fever and pain.
  • If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
  • Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of bleeding.

Zika Virus Prevention

Prevent Zika virus by avoiding mosquito bites indoors and outdoors. These mosquitoes bite during the day and night.

Use mosquito repellent in accordance with the instructions indicated on the product label. Wearing long-sleeved shirts and long trousers.

Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex since it can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners. Condoms include male and female condoms.

Zika Virus Vaccine

No vaccine is currently available.

Zika Virus Risks Factor

Anyone who lives in or travels to an area with risk of Zika and has not already been infected with Zika virus can get it from mosquito bites. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

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